We are trying to make things as clear as possible, take a view of our glossary of terminology.

In chemistry, this is the measurement of the relative proportions of two or more quantities in a mixture. Concentration may be expressed in a number of ways. The simplest statement of the concentrations of the components of a mixture is in terms of their percentages by weight or volume.

A point-to-point or multi-drop circuit mainly used in the process automation field to transmit signals from instruments and sensors in the field to a PLC/ Scada. An analogue signal from 4 to 20 mA to replicate 0 to 100% of a process variable.

To increase the Oxygen content of a medium.

A negatively charged ion, especially the ion that migrates to an anode in electrolysis.

Unit of pressure equal to 100 kiloPascals

A chemical that is designed to control the population of troublesome microbes by killing them.

Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bio products.

Boiler blow down is the removal of water from a boiler. Its purpose is to control boiler water parameters within prescribed limits to minimize scale, corrosion, carryover, and other specific problems.

This is water used to supply or feed a boiler to generate steam or hot water. At thermal power stations the feed water is usually stored, pre-heated and conditioned in a feed water tank and forwarded into the boiler by a boiler feed water pump.

A brominator is a vessel which contains a bromo-chloro compound in tableted form. A flow of water through the brominator results in dissolution of the tablet to produce a solution of bromine which can then be fed to the cooling water system and process system where micro-biological control of micro-organisms are required.

An ion or group of ions having a positive charge and characteristically moving toward the negative electrode in electrolysis.

Cleaning-In-Place (CIP) and Sterilization-In-Place (SIP) are methods of cleaning equipment with minimal dismantling and operator involvement using an automated cleaning and disinfecting process.  By applying an appropriate detergent at a suitable flow, pressure, temperature and concentration for the correct length of time.

All aqueous solutions have the ability to pass an electric current and can therefore have a measureable conductivity.

A cooling tower is a heat rejection device, which extracts waste heat to the atmosphere though the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature.

Water circulated through a cooling system to remove heat from certain areas.

The process uses a weak Acidic Cation Resin. This resin type is capable of removing hardness from water when it also contains Alkalinity. After treatment the water contains Carbon Dioxide that can be eliminated by a de-gassifier tower.

The removal of minerals and mineral salts from a liquid (especially from water)

Desalination refers to any of several processes that remove some amount of salt and other minerals from water. Water is desalinated in order to convert salt water to fresh water so it is suitable for human consumption or irrigation.

This is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in their boiling points. Distillation is a unit operation, or a physical separation process, and not a chemical reaction. Water is distilled to remove impurities, such as salt from seawater.

Dissolved Oxygen (DO) is a relative measure of the amount of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium.

European Brewery Convention, Formazin based Turbidity unit of measure

Electrodeless conductivity is a technique for measuring the concentration of electrolytes in solution and utilizes a sensor consisting of two toroids in close proximity, both of which are immersed in the solution.

Fermentation in food processing typically is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions.

Formazin Turbidity Units, measurement of Turbidity FTU can be made at any angle of detection, although both the EPA and ASTM dictate measurement angles of 90°.

A Galvanic Dissolved Oxygen sensor consists of two electrodes: an anode and cathode which are both immersed in electrolyte (inside the sensor body). An oxygen permeable membrane separates the anode and cathode from the water being measured. Oxygen diffuses across the membrane. It interacts with the probe internals to produce an electrical current.

Grams / Litre is a unit of measure, showing how many grams of a certain substance are present in one litre of liquid.

Sulphuric Acid

Phosphoric Acid

A communications technology for intelligent process measurement and control instrumentation and systems with more than thirty million devices installed worldwide.

Hydrochloric Acid

Hydrofluoric Acid is a solution of Hydrogen Fluoride in water. Hydrofluoric acid is a highly corrosive acid, able to dissolve glass. In pH measurement this can be a problem, HF Resistant Glass pH electrodes are now available for this application.

In the context of water purification, ion-exchange is a rapid and reversible process in which impurity ions present in the water are replaced by ions released by an ion-exchange resin. The impurity ions are taken up by the resin, which must be periodically regenerated to restore it to the original ionic form.

Milligrams Grams / Litre is a unit of measure, showing how many milligrams of a certain substance are present in one litre of liquid.

With sophisticated design and the appropriate resins water with a conductivity of 0.055µS/cm can be produced. Usually a mixed bed polishing unit contains strong acid Cation (SAC) resin and strong base Anion (SBA) resins combined to a ratio of approximately 40% Cation resin to 60% Anion resin. The resin volumes are dependent upon the incoming water analysis and the required quantity of treated water.

Sodium Chloride, also known as Salt

Sodium Hydroxide also known as Caustic Soda

N.I.S.T.  Is the federal technology agency that works with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements, and standards.

Nephelometric Turbidity Units, Formazin based, using a 90° measurement technique.

Optical Density is a unit of measure of Turbidity.

Oxidation Reduction Potential

PolyEtherEtherKetone – a polymer thermoplastic with excellent mechanical and chemical resistance properties.

In chemistry, pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution. Pure water is said to be neutral, with a pH close to 7.0 at 25°C. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are alkaline.

The Polargraphic or Clark cell comprises of an inert cathode electrode and a Silver anode immersed in an Electrolyte. The Polargraphic cell requires a voltage input from the meter to polarize the electrodes.

Parts per million

Parts per billion

Precipitation is the formation of a solid in a solution or inside another solid during a chemical reaction or by diffusion in a solid. When the reaction occurs in a liquid, the solid formed is called the precipitate, or when compacted by a centrifuge, a pellet.

A standard for field bus communication in automation technology.

Pounds per square inch – unit of pressure

A type of resistance thermometer, also called resistance temperature detectors or resistive thermal devices (RTDs), are temperature sensors that exploit the predictable change in electrical resistance of some materials with changing temperature. For a PT100 the resistance is equal to 100 Ohms at 0°C & for a PT1000 the resistance is equal to 1000 Ohms at 0°C.

Reactions that involve the exchange of electrons are called reduction and oxidation (Redox) reactions. When a chemical species loses electrons we say that it is oxidized, and when a chemical species gains electrons we say that it is reduced. Redox can also be known as ORP.

An electrical switch that is operated by an electromagnet used for switching a power circuit.

Resistivity is simply the reciprocal of conductivity. Generally Resistivity measurements are only used in pure water or Low conductivity applications and displayed as Mohm/cm or megohm/cm.

Process by which a solvent such as water is purified of solutes by being forced through a semi-permeable membrane through which the solvent, but not the solutes, may pass.

Resistance Temperature Detector

Salinity is a measure of dissolved salts in sea water. It is calculated as the amount of salt (in grams) dissolved in 1,000 grams (1 kilogram) of seawater.

The basic unit of conductivity is the Siemens (S), formerly called the mho. Since cell geometry affects conductivity values, standardized measurements are expressed in specific conductivity units (S/cm) to compensate for variations in electrode dimensions. Conductivity is normally expressed as µS/cm.

The concentration of insoluble contaminants in water.

This is a measure of the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid in molecular, ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form.

Turbidity refers to how clear the water is. The greater the amount of total suspended solids (TSS) in the water, the murkier it appears and the higher the measured turbidity.

Ultrafiltration systems eliminate the need for clarifiers and multimedia filters for waste streams to meet critical discharge criteria or to be further processed by wastewater recovery systems for water recovery.

Ultra-pure water – High purity / low conductivity water used in semiconductor manufacturing.

US Pharmacopeia, is a non–governmental, official public standards–setting authority for prescription and over–the–counter medicines and other healthcare products manufactured or sold in the United States.